In photography, output characteristics refer to the relationship between the settings used to take a photo (input) and the resulting image (output). This includes how different camera settings such as aperture, shutter speed, ISO, and lens choice affect the exposure and overall look of the photo.
Understanding the output characteristics of a camera and lens can help photographers make informed decisions about their equipment and settings to achieve the desired results. For example, a wider aperture (lower f-number) will result in a shallower depth of field, while a higher ISO will result in more noise in the image. Photographers can use the output characteristics of their equipment to creatively control the look and feel of their photos.